L’actu en Science – 22 août

Salut à toutes et à tous,

cette semaine on parle bactéries mais vues sous deux angles différents. Le premier est comment on pourrait traiter certaines infections grâce à une action jusque là inconnue du lait maternelle. Deuxièmement, une archée retrouvée en Antarctique nous montre comment les plasmides, ces petites structures d’ADN semi-indépendantes au sein des bactéries, pourraient en fait être les ancêtres des virus actuels.

Action des sucres complexes du lait maternel sur des biofilms bactériens, rendant chaque organisme plus vulnérables à l’action des antibiotiques (Crédits : Steven Townsend / Vanderbil)

Des sucres maternels plus efficaces que les antibiotiques ?

L’on sait déjà que le lait maternel possède de nombreuses propriétés. C’est bien sûr une solution nutritive pour le nourrisson mais il permet aussi le transfert de microorganismes qui vont construire sa flore intestinale. Il est également su que certaines protéines contenues dans ce lait aide au développement du système immunitaire du nouveau-né. Ce rôle dans l’immunité est d’autant renforcé avec la découverte que certains sucres complexes avaient également des propriétés antibactériennes.

Il a été ainsi démontré que selon les donneuses, les glucides présents dans le lait maternel est capable de tuer les bactéries ou du moins de désorganiser les biofilms, des communautés de bactéries entourées d’une matrice protectrice, rendant les organismes plus vulnérables à d’autres agents antimicrobiens voire les deux simultanément.

Il ne s’agit cependant pas d’une cure miracle mais bel et bien d’une source potentielle de nouveaux traitements qui pourrait accompagner, éventuellement remplacer dans certains cas, la prise d’antibiotiques. Il reste à étudier plus en détails l’actions de ces glucides complexes et à développer des solutions pour reproduire ces composés dans un objectifs pharmaceutique.

Le lac de l’île de Rauer où les échantillons de Halorubrum lacusprofundi ont été prélevés (Crédit : UNSW Sydney)

Un possible aperçu de l’évolution des virus

Les plasmides forment un type de structure composée d’ADN et se retrouvent principalement chez les bactéries mais aussi les archées voire chez certaines levures. Un plasmide n’est pas constitué de l’ADN chromosomique bactérien mais est une structure libre et codant pour sa propre réplication au sein des cellules. Même si leurs rôles au sein des bactéries ne sont pas toujours connus, il semblerait qu’une partie d’entre eux aident à la survie des bactéries, en produisant des protéines de résistances aux antibiotiques par exemple.

Les plasmides se différencient des virus par le fait qu’il n’ont pas de codes génétiques pour la création de protéines qui leur permettrait de “s’encapsuler” et de sortir de la cellule pour aller infecter d’autres hôtes. La deuxième différence est le but final. Les plasmides, bien que non-essentiels à la survie de l’hôte, fournissent généralement un avantage sélectif à l’hôte en échange de sa propre maintenance. Les virus, au contraire, déroutent les mécanismes de réplication et de transduction et utilisent toutes les ressources de la cellule pour se reproduire jusqu’à que celle-ci se délite ; en somme les virus sont des parasites.

Halorubrum lacusprofundi est une archée vivant dans les profondeurs de lacs hypersalins de l’Antarctique et elle pourrait fournir la clef d’interprétation de l’émergence des virus. Une équipe de chercheurs a remarqué qu’un type de plasmide, appelé pR1SE, au sein de cette archée aurait des traits presque viraux. En effet, il code certaines protéines qui vont se loger dans la membrane cellulaire de l’hôte et permettent in fine au plasmide de s’échapper de la cellule et d’aller infecter d’autres cellules protégé par une membrane prise à l’hôte. Un système qui paraît presque ancestral à la méthode d’infection des virus d’aujourd’hui qui consiste à se créer une capsule de protéines et éventuellement se recouvrent en plus d’une membrane issue de leur hôte. Il est donc possible que les virus, du moins certains d’entre eux, aient émergés de l’évolution de certains plasmides ayant la capacité de forcer la cellule à les excréter.

 

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Explorons le passé, interrogeons le présent et rêvons le futur sur Sci&Fi.
C’était l’Archeo-ranger et le Conteur pour Sci&Fi, transmission terminée…

Références :
Ackermann et al. (2017) Human Milk Oligosaccharides Exhibit Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Properties against Group B Streptococcus. ACS Infectious Disease.
Erdmann et al. (2017) A plasmid from an Antarctic haloarchaeon uses specialized membrane vesicles to disseminate and infect plasmid-free cells. Nature Microbiology.

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